Profitable, Complementary and Powerful Winter Canola Acreage
will increase up to 4 times, Canola Plots. At Hugoton.
 Storm Ursa, Discoveries. SRS, Hybrids, Thio-sul. MGPA.


From GJS.
A quick update on our TKI, KSU, Exactrix, McClure, Rubisco winter canola project a Hugoton.
Harvest is yet to be completed at Goodland.

Goodland Kansas harvest will start later than planned about July 17th.

The large scale test at Hugoton is a success, most of the dryland Canola was headed for 40 bushels per acre. The irrigated was in the 80 to 100 bushel per acre range if the residue was removed with fire or tillage following irrigated wheat or Triticale.

Storm of the Century, Ursa
was the “Three Horse Evener”, the dryland and irrigated came in all about or close to the same, about 28 bushels per acre on the irrigated, dryland 18 to 25 bushels per acre.

“No matter how hard the horse pulled the other two horses had to share the load.”

April 28 to May 7, covering the 4 week blooming crop with 15 inches of snow cover at 30 to 32 degrees F did a lot of damage over 7 to 10 days, just the shading and shock was enough, let alone the broken stems and the loss of the biological life of the Winter Canola canopy.

April 28th 17, Barry Hittle, Mercedes, Just before Late Winter Storm Ursa hit. Irrigation Center Pivot of Mercedes Winter Canola, Headed for 100 bushel yields and showing full potential. The unusual freezing storm reduced the yields to 28 bushels per acre.

May 2, Snow Trap with tall Hornet Winter Canola at the Hittle, Irrigated site.

The crop was about 55 to 65 inches tall. Planted on September 9, 2016.

“We had a few breakout discoveries “.

Number 1. Hybrids have the most resilience.

Number 2. SRS has great potential, to lower risk (viable stands at low seed costs) and increase yield potential,

Number 3. Planters are superior and one plant every 4 to 5 inches with residue removed in a wide 8 inch strip is about right on 20 and 30 inch spacing. Planting at 40,000 to 60,000 hybrid population is good place to start on 20 and 30 inch using SRS.

Number 4. It is important to not use RR canola unless the grassy weed problem dominates the decision to plant winter Canola.

Number 5. Fall insecticides are important.

Number 6. Growth Regulators appear to be effective.

Number 7. TAPPS and TAPPKS with complete micros Zn, B, Cu, Fe, Mn works better than any other approach and fall banding may be considered in side dress

Number 8. In irrigation, Heavy residue, Winter Wheat or Triticale residue must be removed in the row area using naked strip tillage, leaving standing stubble for winter snow trap and protection.

-------Dryland Winter Wheat yields in Joel’s area were very low at 7 to 15 bushels per acre and some 2 year summer fallow yields that made 40 bushels per acre….it would take 40 to 50 bushel dryland winter wheat to compete with his Canola yields.

--------At Hugoton a chance for a restart and use all we have learned to get into the 80 to 100 bushel per acre range and fertilize high rates of P…up to 40 to 60 lbs. P per acre to move the Winter Canola maturity ahead about 10 days.

----------The sulfur rate is critical at about 8 to 12 gallons per acre based on the Goodland ADM premium, Thio-Sul is a good economical way to reach high oil content Winter Canola.

Joel McClure comments about Winter Canola.

He prefers to work with the pivots since the dryland has no insurance, but Joel might be willing to try a few high quality dryland acres with ample stored soil moisture, (flexcrop or Chemfallow).

In Joel’s area dryland canola has no winter canola crop insurance available. Insurance is possible with producers like Joel McClure. Joel beat insurance as compared to Lohn, Texas which has insurance in the 20 bushel per acre range, or 1,000 lbs.

Probably for Joel’s best efforts in developing Winter Canola, irrigation is the path of least resistance due to insurance and banking as this will stand true for others in the area.

Plus Joel may not have enough acres in dryland that are really qualified with stored soil moisture since Winter Canola must have at least 3 to 4 feet of stored soil moisture for a good fall start. Winter Canola also uses more water than corn. The advantage of Winter Canola is the water need comes in much different period…

Milo may out compete for the dryland acres or in a 3 year rotation with one year of set aside for Canola. This full 1 year fallow technique is used in the the PNW…Winter Canola and Dwarf Essex following winter wheat Chemfallow dryland, Peas or Oats could be considered for cover. 

The additional yield punch of the Winter Canola rotation is 10% higher yields in wheat….and we suspect the same for Corn and Milo.

The SRS is 50 to 65 gallons per acre on 20 inch spacing. 3 to 5 gallons of MGPA could be considered in the application with SRS, 3 to 5 gallons of Thio-sul could be considered with 50 gallons per acre SRS.

Note that of 5 or 6 varieties tried the best variety was Rubisco, Hornet under these tough conditions. Hybrids are the best choice. Shatter was a problem with Mercedes. Open Pollinated varieties are not vigorous under cold and snow stress. DeKalb and Pioneer are not as strong as the European varieties from Rubisco. 

European varieties such as Quartz are also showing good come back strength. Shatter is a major consideration of Quartz. Direct cutting is as good or better than swathing.

No-Tillage, Deep Banding, TAPPS Mustang Fall banding….Late Fall Banding needs to be implemented …. to avoid any crown damage that can occur in the side dress spring application. 

October to November fall banding in side dressing mode looks like it might work…but the practice may not fit the workload.

Critical to Winter Canola, residue will need to be removed from the row area, naked strip till is probably the best way to get the snow trap and the most stored soil moisture such as Greg Sederstrom practice at Goodland, KS.

This is a very strange year at Hugoton. A 100 year storm in late April and early May….keep that in mind…a 15 to 22 inch snow storm that killed 20,000 cows and left the SW Kansas of the Great Plains in frozen state for 10 days with no power and only tractors to get to town, April 28 to May 7. There is some real value and hard earned lessons that will be utilized in 2018.


Stem Breakage.

Mercedes headed for 100 bushels per acre and then Winter Storm Ursa hit about 8:00 PM April 28, 17. 

The rebound, the excellent Winter Canola Plant lodged and damaged with heavy snow load and poor light for 10 days.

The shadowing of the crop at 30 degrees F in full bloom.

Lack of light at very cold temperatures in full bloom results in a new start or a second crop.

                      False fill.

Poor quality canola seed resulted from stem damage and poor light.

Hybrid Vigor is expressive when stress is applied.
May 23, Mercedes, Multiple branching and second story of the Winter Canola Crop restarting after April 28th Ursa effect reviewed.

Replanting of early planted corn was common in the area.


Check the Calendar.
Do the cell towers still work?
Saturday Morning looked a little different, April 29, 2017.

A most unusual storm with 20,000 dead cattle, “Ursa, storm of the century.“

SRS Seed Row Saturation. Up to 50 to 65 gallons per acre.

Changes the chances of raising Winter Canola, reduces risk and raises yield potential.

“Take what you have and do better with it.”

Joel McClure at Hugoton, KS. June 7, 2017. Preparing for the next chapter in high yield Winter Canola, Sunflower and Soybean.

The problem is, The water is for free but application really costs about $2.00 acre to assure a 99% stand.
SRS lowers Seed Costs. Allows a good strong plant every 4 to 5 inches.

The water is too low cost, too simple, and my fertilizer dealer did not get to sell it. There is no market maker.
So it is important to apply something else with the seed row saturation water to support the fertilizer dealers so they will spread the word.
That is how it works in the USA. If only the farmer benefits it cannot be a good product. A disruptive business practice/product from Exactrix. JD Skiles Trailer, about $25,000 with 3,000 gallons of water. Applying about 50 gallons per acre to 65 gallons per acre.

Too simple to work.
Quick removal for inspection of the Exactrix Dual tubes and quick settings. Hillside orientation maybe different than shown.

Dual tubes required in flows above 30 gallon per acre, and in hillside.

Paying attention to good winter canola stands can mean big benefits in following crops such as wheat, corn, milo and soybeans. Typically yields jump 10% and can be much greater if there are significant problems resulting from lack of a 3 or 4 year rotation.

Goodland roots go deep.
Just before dormancy, during the late fall or winter seasons, producers need to single disc band or apply 65 lbs. N as NH3. Winter Canola requires Ammonium(NH3) only for maximum hardiness.

The 65 lb. per acre N as NH3 rate is very close to optimum nitrogen rate on irrigated production. A dryland rate of 35 to 45 lbs. N per acre as NH3is a good economic rate.

The Exactrix TAPPS formulation includes 10 to 20 lbs. Por 10-34-0 as Ammonium Poly Phosphate and 20 to 30 lbs. Sas Thio-sul®, 12-0-0-26S. Micros must be applied with the APP/ATS mix in a homogenous blend using Ammoniated Zinc, Cu and a very small amount of boron (ounces). Potassium Thio-Sulfate or KTS can also considered.

High sulfur input is required to build an oil content of 44%. Boron and Copper are important for the reproductive stage.

Note: Do not over-apply primary nutrients or micro nutrients as the Winter Canola crop root system is highly exploratory and does not require much help from commercial fertilizer.

Double Crop, It is Possible to let the Winter Canola Volunteer or come back from seed lost at harvest, and then after 60 days, green chop the crop for the local dairies in August/September. Following green chop harvest, No-till seed winter wheat in late September and band TAPPS with single disc Mustang openers after the winter wheat crop is up.

Winter Canola reduces disease pressure on following crops.

A three year rotation would be Corn, Winter Wheat, Winter Canola. The Winter Canola is a good soil fumigant shifting the disease spectrum and allowing up to 10% yield increases in winter and spring wheat and undocumented yield increases in dryland and irrigated corn.

Follow a three year rotation to maintain a high quality disease free seed bed for Winter Canola. Another good 3 year rotation would be Winter Canola and green chop volunteer canola, Corn, late seeded Winter Wheat. This is a powerful rotation that frees up the workload in the spring with 2/3 of the irrigated acres in winter crop production.

1. In dryland production, Winter Wheat, Winter Canola, Milo. Allowing 2/3 of the production in winter crops.

2. Another technique to consider to lower the dryland risk during low commodity prices would be Winter Canola, Winter Wheat, Milo and Full year Chemfallow/Oats cover crop. This would allow ¾ of system producing cash flow and ¼ of the system producing a flywheel effect in moisture storage and less risk in low commodity prices.

3. In dryland production, Winter Canola, Winter Wheat/Stripper Header, Full year Chemfallow with optional Cover Crop Oats. All crops are winter crops operating with a 1/3 reserve of moisture storage. Utilizing stored soil moisture to establish the winter Canola in August/September. 

Always consider 7 inch deep banding into the growing crop, with the Mustang P-51C TAPPS banding option. “Today and for the modern times of commodity crop production, band TAPPS into growing crops, it is time proven economically functional. “, GJS.

At Goodland, KS, the Winter Canola stand looks pretty good, but will it make it through the winter of 2016/2017? 

No-tillage and Strip Tillage cropping with Mustang openers and TAPPS and Strip till 30, TAPPS. 

Oct. 19, 16, A Wednesday. Goodland Kansas. About 1.5 mile south of I-70 in deep soils of Goodland, KS.

Seed provider, Rubisco, Mercedes variety of Winter Canola. Planted at a population from 100,00 to 300,000 in 30 inch rows. Inclusive pictures will explain.

Orthman 12 row strip till tool bar in front of the planter moving heavy winter wheat residue.

Deere1710 NT Planter with RRV meters, 90 cell.

A winter hardening growth regulator and fungicide applied about 2 days earlier. The Winter Canola leaves show a dull surface rather than the typical shinny surface.

An acceptable learning curve. There was operator error or mechanical trouble with the planter hitting the population. 

Strip tilled and planted in heavy Winter Wheat in residue. The no-till winter wheat yields were very good and in the mid 90’s bushels per acre.

Estimate 8,000 to 10,000 lbs. of winter wheat residue per acre.

Winter wheat, corn rotation, irrigated production at the elevation of 3,681 feet at 39.3 degrees North. Considered one of the best crop production areas in western Kansas.

The pre-plant preparation is a 30 inch strip tillage seed bed with no nutrients applied.

Nutrients yet to be applied using TAPPS with a Single Disc Mustang Tool Bar. Timing nutrients closer to the dormant period or in the dormant period.

Higher than normal temperatures during the fall establishment.

The crowns have reset back to the surface as the taproot expands. 

The crown reset is occurring most effectively in low population rows.

The high population rows will probably winter kill due to high competition and poor crown set.

Single Disc Banding of TAPPS is delayed until the crop is dormant.
The crop must not be lush. Only Ammonium is used.
TAPPS and TAPPKTS banding is critical to winter survival year in and year out.

Tri-Ammonium Poly Phosphate Sulfate with low cost Ammoniated Zinc. Total 100% ammonium nutrition at 1% CV of application and crystallization.

Soils proved that Winter Canola pulled most of the nitrate and ammonium out of the soil profile over the winter.

Powerful injection of Penicillium Balaii and K-mag coming this summer in establishing better Winter Canola root systems early and later.

Winter Canola nutrients are most effectively applied between November to middle February. Banding TAPPS into the growing crop allows highest nutrient efficiency. 

TAPPS and TAPPKTS provides the most immediate nutrient uptake in the root zone. Ammonium is immediately available to the growing roots when band at the 7 inch depth in vermiculated bands.

Application Uniformity of NH3 and Liquid Ammonium Poly Phosphate, and Ammonium Thio-Sulfate or Thio-Sul® is 1% CV.

Micro-nutrients such as Ammoniated Zinc, Copper and Boron can also be applied in the liquid streaming flow band. 

The unique and proprietary advantage of Anhydrous Ammonia and Snow. Both low cost and natural inputs are totally synergistic in improving crop yields by providing ammonium nutrition to the growing roots of the crop as the snow melts and perks into the soil.

The Winter Canola roots will grow under the Snow Pack with ammonium nutrition, and Winter Canola prefers Ammonium, not urea and not nitrate. Canola prefers Ammonium combined with low cost Poly Phosphate and Thio-sul®.

Facing West at Goodland a fantastic management technique implemented to save moisture and produce and even soil perk of the melting snow .

A superior example of standing stubble producing additional winter protection from the north winds.

A high population row stands out with a different color.

Strip till seems very appropriate in the high residue production of Canola, takes the load off of the Planter row cleaners. No nutrients are applied with the strip till tool bar.

Several different approaches have been taken across Kansas and Colorado. In no-till, strip till and even mini till. Row spacings from 10, 15, 20, twin row 15 and 30 inch.

Good Crown Set of Winter Canola, Rubisco, Mercedes.

No Growth regulator here.
North of the pivot position at the outside tower next to the road, no fungicide and growth regulator, .25 acres.

Let the volunteer wheat grow. Select® herbicide can be spring applied.
Judge the crop at dormancy break in late March.
TAPPS nutrients are applied at just above freezing temperatures from November to Feb. 2015.
The November period is preferred for Exactrix® TAPPS when the ground temperature reaches 35 to 40 degrees.

There is very little chance of leaching nitrogen and the winter canola taproots have reached the2 to 3 foot level and the fibrous roots have developed.

How Winter Canola Roots Grow On The Great Plains.

Winter Canola has two root system types. Rubisco Hybrid Winter Canola, Hornet.

Big Canola Crowns with 4 to 5 inch plant spacing, about 1. 125 to 1.25 inches width of the taproot crown. 

The Winer Canola Crown is the headquarters of plant survival.
Healthy and non-split crowns mean vascular movement of nutrients and survival to -15 degrees F.
A heavy duty multi tool cuts the crown open to reveal and strong vascular system.
Consistent layers of plant stored energy are exposed.
This definitely is a prosperous and happy WC plant.
This is actually marginal timing as the plant is elongating and has broken dormancy.
The application of TAPPS nutrients were timed very late but more than adequate.
March banding should be avoided as less damage will occur to crowns at the field lands.

A taproot that operates in the 15 to 20 inch zone stores nutrients and grows through the winter.

Fibrous Roots that reach to the side about 20 inches and go deep to 8 to 9 feet if the soil moisture allows.
Soil pits help to understand the tap root and the fibrous root of Winter Canola.

Two root systems, and two different starts. A nitrate harvester, the crop removed most of the soil stored nitrate.

Late February at Hugoton, KS, High Speed, 12 mph, Banding TAPPS and TAPPKS with micro nutrients, Zn ,B, Mn, Fe, Cu . 

Avoid running over the crowns. Do not split the crowns open with the tractor tires in late winter banding. 

Consider splitting the workload for banding TAPPS, 2/3 in the November period and 1/3 for the late winter period.

Banding should start in October, November and continue through February on the Great Plains.

Guy J Swanson
Your Great Plains Reporter.
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